Different properties of substances, such as solids, gases or fluids, are called different phases. The substances added to the fluid is described as the dispersing phase. The fluid, on the other hand, forms the continuous phase. The interfacial tension between the two phases is problematic. Initially, it prevents a dispersion forming, i.e. the phases remain separated. This is the case, for example, if agglomerates form in the fluid. During dispersion, the largest possible phase interface is created so that the dispersing phase can be distributed consistently in the continuous phase.
Stirring alone does not work with some substances so that they mix, i.e. they form a dispersion. For example, some powders form lumps or gels. Specific processes are used here, which prevent the formation of agglomerates. Turbulence vortices are created during mixing. If the vortices are larger than the agglomerates, they cannot destroy them. The agglomerates can only be broken down and high-quality mixing processes ensured through the use of specific dispersion tools.